David Collins has written a short paper on different methods of notation which have evolved recently, and he thought that some readers here might be interested. The paper is available here.
The primary languages discussed are Mondrian, Abc notation, Csound, and Lilypond. The paper is not intended to be comprehensive. Collins hasn’t discussed other tools such as Philip’s Music Writer, or the various audio programming environments such as SuperCollider, Chuck and others.
The software discussed is not necessarily Linux-specific, but it is all FLOSS and available on Linux – and the information might be of interest to people who use Linux to compose music.
Collins welcomes feedback and corrections.